Gastroenterology is a medical specialty that focuses on the digestive system and related issues, such as the alimentary canal. It requires a thorough understanding of gastrointestinal organ physiology, including food motility in the stomach and intestine, nutritional digestion and absorption, waste elimination from the system, and the liver's role as a digestive organ. Hepatology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, analysis, and treatment of infections of the liver, gallbladder, biliary system, and pancreas. The future of hepatology promises to eradicate Hepatitis C virus infection, but a new barrier has emerged. Obesity and metabolic disorders, as well as related non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, are displacing the hepatitis C virus as the leading cause of chronic liver disease in Western countries.
Gastrointestinal pathology is a surgical pathology subspecialty concerned with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract and accessory organs such as the pancreas and liver. The gastrointestinal tract's primary function is to transport food and absorb nutrients. Many gastrointestinal pathologic conditions impair one or both of these functions. The gastrointestinal tract, particularly the colon, is a common site of cancer. Abdominal pain and gastrointestinal haemorrhage are the two most common symptoms of gastrointestinal pathology.
Bariatric surgery encompasses a wide range of procedures performed on obese patients. Long-term weight loss achieved through standard of care procedures is largely accomplished by modifying gut hormone levels responsible for hunger and satiety, resulting in a new hormonal weight set point. Infection, nutritional deficiencies, gallstones, and chronic nausea and vomiting are all common side effects of weight loss surgery. Bariatric surgery is an effective way to improve many obesity-related health problems, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol levels, and sleep apnea.
The gut microbiome is made up of billions of bacteria and other microorganisms that live in the lower intestine alongside human cells. Absorption, immune function, and brain health are all aided by gut microbiota. Our gut microbiome begins to develop in infancy and is influenced by genetics, delivery method, age, stress, illness, environment, drug use, and diet. A few factors can upset our gut's 'balance,' which can lead to inflammation a major risk factor for physical and mental health problems
Digestive diseases are conditions that affect the digestive tract, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Food and drink are broken down into small pieces (called nutrients) that the body can consume and use as energy and cell building blocks. The digestive tract is made up of the oesophagus, throat, large and small intestines, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
Hepatitis is a liver inflammation. Excessive alcohol consumption, a variety of health conditions, and some anaesthetics can all contribute to inflammation. The most common cause of hepatitis, however, is viral flu. Hepatitis is most commonly caused by viral infection, but there are other possible causes of hepatitis. These include autoimmune hepatitis as well as hepatitis caused by anaesthetics, toxins, and alcohol. Autoimmune hepatitis is a condition in which our bodies produce antibodies against our liver tissue.
Gastrointestinal (GI) disorder is also present at some point during pregnancy. Some women experience GI issues that are unique to pregnancy. Other pregnant patients are born with chronic GI disorders that necessitate special care while pregnant. Understanding the superiority of various GI disorders is critical in order to provide the best care for these patients. Nausea, with or without vomiting, is common in the first trimester of pregnancy. Urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, peptic ulcer disease, pancreatitis, and biliary tract sickness are some of the other causes of nausea in pregnancy. Concerns later in pregnancy include hydramnios, preeclampsia, and the onset of exertions.
A liver illness (also known as hepatic malady) is a liver disease or condition. Swelling of the abdomen and legs, easy bleeding, changes in the colour of your faeces and pee, and jaundice, or yellowing of the skin and eyes, are all symptoms of liver disease. There are four types of hepatitis (A, B, C, and E). Biliary colic, an irregular and persistent severe pain in the epigastrium or right upper quadrant, and occasionally between the scapulas, occurs in a few patients as a result of a gallstone obstructing the cystic channel. If the cystic conduit obstruction persists, the gallbladder becomes inflamed, resulting in cholecystitis, a severe aggravation and disease of the gallbladder. Choledocholithiasis is one of the most common causes of extrahepatic biliary obstruction, in which one or more stones in the common bile duct or common hepatic duct cause biliary blockage.
Pediatric gastroenterologists, hepatologists, and dietitians make up the Hepatology and Nutrition team. Clinicians and nurses are dedicated to assisting children with known or unknown gastrointestinal, liver, and nutritional complications. The ultimate goal of the Gastroenterology Division is to provide excellent medical care to people suffering from gastrointestinal and liver conditions. As a result, training in gastroenterology and conducting cutting-edge biomedical research aids in our understanding of digestive conditions. Hepatology is a medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
The spectrum of disease is extremely wide, with many of the underlying disorders having acute and chronic presentations. Most of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are accounted for by autoimmune disorder , virus infection and toxic insult.
Hepato-pancreato-biliary disease refers to any conditions that affect the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and bile ducts. These diseases frequently share some distinguishing characteristics, such as jaundice, darker urine colour, and lighter stool colour. While some diseases are caused by genetic or hereditary factors, Hepato-pancreato-biliary disease is caused by chronic damage to the tissues of the organs involved. Hepatologists, hepato-pancreato-biliary oncologists, and transplant specialists study and treat these conditions. Jaundice, yellowing of the skin and eyes, abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, and itchy skin are the first signs of liver disease. It also causes swelling of the legs or ankles, dark urine, pale stool, bloody stool, chronic vomiting, and loss of appetite. Patients with hepato-pancreato-biliary diseases or their symptoms should see a hepatologist, who can refer them to hepatobiliary surgeons, pancreatic surgeons, or hepatobiliary surgical oncologists who specialise in treating specific types of hepato-pancreato-biliary diseases.
Gastrointestinal immunology deals with the immune reaction of the gastrointestinal tract to the external stimulus. Failure to respond is significant because it affects the function of the gastrointestinal tract system. In terms of research, this field of science is opening up a new frontier. The most recent advances in gut and liver organ transplantation, HIV infection of the gut, and the recently discovered disease H. pylori gastritis are immune abnormalities in scientific progress in the area of gut immune system.
Until now, the most common gastrointestinal transplants have been the liver, pancreas, oesophagus, small digestive system, and colon. Because transplantation is a major surgery, the environment must be kept quiet both during and after the procedure. When the body begins to reject the joint or organ, the difficulties usually appear after the operation. Any issues that may arise can be assessed using hematological or imaging tests. A liver transplant is a surgical procedure that involves removing an infected or damaged liver and replacing it with a full modern solid liver or a portion of a healthy donor's liver. Individuals suffering from severe or chronic liver failure require a liver transplant to survive.
The study of food nutrients, supplement utilisation by the body, and the relationship between nutrition, health, and infection is known as nutrition. The emphasis of nutrition has shifted to metabolism and metabolic pathways (biochemical steps) through which chemicals within the body are changed from one structure to the next. Nutrition also focuses on how a healthy diet can help to prevent or alleviate diseases, illnesses, and concerns. The term probiotic is increasingly being used to refer to ingested microorganisms that have been linked to health benefits in humans and animals. Probiotics have a number of advantages, including reduced gastrointestinal stress, improved immune health, and relief from constipation. There are supplements available, such as dietary enzymes and single cell proteins.
Gastroenterology has emerged from the woods of medicinal claims to fame only in recent years. It is due to a colossal shift in the field of detection and treatment. Gastroenterology has been divided into two branches: hepatology and "empty organ" gastroenterology. Colorectal disease screening, case endoscopy, hepatitis C solutions, and new biologic treatments are among the ongoing advances in gastroenterology.
Robotic surgery is becoming more widely used in the minimally invasive treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. A robot-assisted surgery system is used to perform robotic surgery in the field of gastrointestinal cancer. The robot in this system is not controlled automatically, but rather by the surgeon. Endoscopic surgery involves inserting a thin, flexible tube containing a video camera through a small incision or a natural orifice such as the mouth or nostrils. The tube has a channel for the surgeon to use tiny surgical instruments while viewing the organs on a computer monitor.
Probiotics are being used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including allergic diseases, bacterial diseases, renal illnesses and cancer, urinary tract infections, and the aversion to tooth caries/respiratory infections. Probiotics are used to treat a variety of gastrointestinal issues. Antibiotic therapy is becoming more widely used as evidence mounts that it can aid in both primary and secondary treatment techniques for gastrointestinal disease, as well as gastrointestinal complications such as bleeding and ulceration. Other supplemental medications, such as corticosteroids and anticoagulants, may exacerbate these risks.